Challenges in the Design of Smart Vehicular Cyber Physical Systems with Human in the Loop

Challenges in the Design of Smart Vehicular Cyber Physical Systems with Human in the Loop


Cyber physical systems (CPSs) are mainly related with the control and monitoring of physical environments and phenomena through sensing and actuation systems consisting of distributed computing and communicating devices. CPSs have seen a great expansion with enormous societal and economic impact facilitating various services such as medical systems, assisted living, traffic control and safety, advanced automotive systems, process control, energy conservation, distributed robotics, weapons systems, manufacturing, distributed sensing command and control, critical infrastructure, smart structures, bio-systems, and communications systems. In order to improve these services to better comply with human needs, the CPS will need to acknowledge the influence of the user or the operator, through Human-in-the-Loop (HiL) controls that take into consideration human intents, psychological states, emotions and actions. As these completely incompatible worlds have to be integrated, innovative solutions are required. In this chapter we provide an overview of the current challenges in designing a smart Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS) with HiL. We consider the challenges to be of two types or categories, the first related to the cyber-physical part and the second to the human factor in the loop of the system. Nevertheless that the direction is towards development from semi-autonomous to fully autonomous cars, the human driver and/or passenger, and even bystanders play a central role in VCPS performance. We focus on the challenges taking into account the perspectives of the integration in the loop of the VCPS the influence of physical processes related to the human behaviour and human emotional states. As pecial attention is given to the human element in the feedback, as it adds a new dimension of uncertainty in the VCPS and discusses the modelling of driver’s behaviour based on his emotional states. The major goal is the identification of areas for further investigation in the scientific area related to CPS with HiL and to outline concrete challenges for future research.


  • Agata Manolova
  • Vladimir Poulkov
  • Krasimir Tonchev


Breakthroughs in Smart City Implementation, Leo P. Ligthart, R. Prasad, Eds. Aalborg, Denmark: River Publishers, 2017, ch. 7, pp. 165-186, ISBN: 9788799923724



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